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Microplastics (<5 mm) were extracted from sediment cores collected in Japan, Thailand, Malaysia, and South Africa by density separation after hydrogen peroxide treatment to remove biofilms were and identified using FTIR. Carbonyl and vinyl indices were used to avoid counting biopolymers as plastics. Microplastics composed of variety of polymers, including polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethyleneterphthalates (PET), polyethylene-polypropylene copolymer (PEP), and polyacrylates (PAK), were identified in the sediment. We measured microplastics between 315 µm and 5 mm, most of which were in the range 315 µm–1 mm. The abundance of microplastics in surface sediment varied from 100 pieces/kg-dry sediment in a core collected in the Gulf of Thailand to 1900 pieces/kg-dry sediment in a core collected in a canal in Tokyo Bay. A far higher stock of PE and PP composed microplastics in sediment compared with surface water samples collected in a canal in Tokyo Bay suggests that sediment is an important sink for microplastics. In dated sediment cores from Japan, microplastic pollution started in 1950s, and their abundance increased markedly toward the surface layer (i.e., 2000s). In all sediment cores from Japan, Thailand, Malaysia, and South Africa, the abundance of microplastics increased toward the surface, suggesting the global occurrence of and an increase in microplastic pollution over time.